In this post we will talk about safe work procedures for lifting loads with high tonnage telescopic cranes.
We will see how to establish the risks, the preventive actions and the correct working methods to be applied by all workers involved in the lifting maneuvers.
SAFETY PROCEDURE FOR LIFTINGS
1. Work Planning
First of all, it is necessary to gather the entire work team involved in the load lifting maneuver to plan the work and review the following:
1.1.Personal protection elements
Elements to be used by the rigger, the operator and the work team.
- Safety helmets
- Safety glasses with UV filter
- Sunscreen with SPF 30 or more
- Safety gloves
- Safety shoes
- Reflective vest
- PPE established in the SDS
- Full body parachute type harness
- Double lifeline with shock absorber and large hook
1.2.Requirements to perform the work:
Requirements to be accomplished by all personnel involved.
- Be of legal age
- Be trained in the procedure
- Qualification of the crane operator
- Qualification of the rigger and signalman
- Use standardized sign system
- Psycho-technical exam for operator and rigger
- Height tests for rigger
1.3.Collective protection instruments and implements
- Anemometer to calculate wind speed
- Delimiting cones and danger tapes
- Ropes to guide the load
- Radio communicator for operator and rigger in case there are blind spots in the lifting maneuver
- Outrigger shoes
- Spill control system in case the cargo contains dangerous substances
- Driver’s license type D
- Legal permits (traffic law)
- Certification of lifting equipment
- Load charts
- PPE certification
- Safety data sheet
In addition, the correct crane positioning location will be defined, carefully checking for excavations or deficiencies in the ground, sewer lines, water pipes or insufficient space to fully extend the crane outriggers
All crane movements and boom projections should be analyzed. This will help to determine how close they may be to power lines, pipelines, fluid conduits, among others.
Finally, it is necessary to ensure that in no case will 90% of the nominal lifting capacity be exceeded in all boom positions, in all types of lifting accessory mooring and in the probable contingencies that may arise, such as variations in the speed of the asset or untimely rains or others.
2. Preventive checks
The work supervisor is in charge of performing the following preventive checks:
- Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
- Daily check of the crane
- Checking of lifting accessories
- Wind speed measurement
Once the checks have been made, the necessary adjustments will be made to the work schedule in order to perform the lifting maneuvers in complete safety.
3. Marking of danger areas
- The area where the lifting maneuvers will be carried out will be delimited, covering the crane’s entire turning radius.
- The mobile areas of the crane shall be established.
Once the crane positioning location has been defined, the crane operators in conjunction with their rigger will install outrigger shoes on the stabilizers. Then, the crane outriggers will be fully extended, positioned on the pads and the rigger will activate the mechanisms for the outrigger locks.
5. Installation of lifting accessories
When the lifting accessories have been properly selected and checked, the rigger and crane operator will prepare the main hook. Then, they will install the lifting accessories, making sure that they are perfectly installed inside the hook and in order to avoid choking each other or unnecessary stresses.
6.Installation of protections at contact points
Rubber protections or other material must be installed to protect the elements from the sharp edges of metallic structures that could cut or break the hoisting elements.
Also, at least 2 hoists per load or as requested by the crane operator shall be installed. Protection and load level tests will be carried out.
7. Preparing the area where the load is to be deposited
Before any lifting maneuver is performed, the area where the load will be deposited must be prepared. Such as wood to support metallic structures, spill control rafts, scaffolding structures, etc.
8.Lifting the load
All movements must be made horizontally and vertically, without allowing combined or oblique movements that could generate pendulum movements that are dangerous for the load. Each worker responsible for the winds shall keep the rope taut during the entire maneuver to counteract the action of the wind or probable pendulum movements.
Only the rigger or signalman may give instructions to the crane operator in the event of blind spots or deficiencies in the visibility of the area.