Lifting maneuvers with a truck crane require some safety rules that must be applied by the crane operator and the entire work team that will be in charge of the maneuvers.
1. Personal protective equipment
All the elements that a crane operator must use are:
- Safety helmet equipped with chinstrap
- Wig cover
- Safety glasses with UV filter
- Safety gloves
- Safety shoes
- Reflective vest
- Sunscreen factor 30 or higher
2. Activity requirements
The safety requirements to be fulfilled by both the crane operator and the rigger shall be:
- Be of legal age
- Safety training to this standard
- Have passed a health examination
- Have a crane operator qualification from a technical training organization
- Rigger qualification
- Type A3 driver’s license
The requirements to be met by the operator support team shall be:
- Health screening
Documentation that must be physically present in the work field
- Truck registration
- Technical inspection
- Compulsory truck insurance
- Certification of hoisting elements
- Crane operator qualification
- Rigger or signalman qualification
- Crane load chart with boom projections
- Weekly truck crane checklist
- AST (Safe Work Analysis) Daily
4.Implementation of maneuver support
The minimum required equipment must be present on board the truck:
- Stabilizer support bases
- High traffic limiter cones
- Danger tape rolls
- Bicolor signaling paddles
- First aid kit
- Dry chemical powder extinguisher
- Torque extender jack
- Cross wrench, beacon and reflective triangles
- Tire chocks
- Ropes, strobes and slings in good working condition
5. Safety precautions before starting the maneuver
The operator will have to execute the following safety precautions before starting the maneuver:
- Job safety analysis reviewing all risks and possible consequences for workers and the environment.
- Once the AST is done, the operator must report anomalies to the client so that they can be corrected before starting the maneuver: e.g. manhole covers in the area of the stabilizers, power lines in the area, excessive winds. Once all anomalies have been corrected, the operator must request the supervisor’s or client’s signature.
- Installing tire shims
- Install the bases where the crane outriggers will be supported, taking special care that the ground is compacted and that there are no manhole covers or any other condition that could cause the crane to collapse.
- Request signage of the work area by using cones or danger tapes around the entire radius of the crane swing, in such a way as to inform where the areas prohibited for pedestrian traffic are located.
- Remove the outrigger lock and extend the outrigger to the previously installed base, making sure it is fully seated. Install all latches and pins depending on the model of crane you are using.
6. Lifting preparation
- The operator will establish the hoisting accessories and types of lashing to be used according to the load considering the supplier’s or manufacturer’s recommendations.
- Once the most suitable lashing has been chosen, the operator must verify that the load does not exceed 85% of the rated capacity of the lifting accessory in the previously chosen lashings, whether they are chains, slings or steel wire ropes.
- You must consider all the movements you will make with the crane and determine with your load chart that no point exceeds 85% of the rated lifting capacity of the equipment.
- You must verify that all lifting elements respect the safety coefficient of 6 to 1 with relation to the load being hoisted.
- Check that the load is not oversized in relation to the areas where it will be moved. Also verify that it is completely secured and tied down with no loose parts in danger of falling and no buried or snagged parts.
- Request from the support team the lashings with the lifting accessories that had been previously selected and also the installation of winds to counteract the pendulation of the load.
7. Load Lifting Safety
- When lifting the load, the operator will look for the middle point to accommodate the lifting accessories and keep the load as balanced as possible.
- Once lifted, it must be guided by a worker using ropes or slings.
- The operator will request the number of winds according to the difficulty of the operation, taking into account that it will be strictly forbidden to touch the suspended loads with the hands.
- The wind must provide a minimum safety distance of a radius of 3 meters with respect to the vertical of the load.
- Load movements should be slow and the crane operator should avoid sudden movements.
- The load should be moved as low as possible for the operator to avoid wind pendulation.
- During the maneuver the operator must be attentive to the crane’s alarm systems according to its type and model.
- No one may stand in the rotating area of the chassis.
- No one may stand or pass under the load or the crane arm.
- Direct contact with suspended loads is prohibited.
- The truck crane may not be positioned next to excavations, wet areas, areas near power lines or any other condition that does not meet minimum safety conditions.